glossary

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

This cancer definition glossary is adapted from the National Cancer Institute online glossary.


J

J-107088
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of topoisomerase I inhibitor. Also called edotecarin.

J-pouch coloanal anastomosis
A surgical procedure in which the colon is attached to the anus after the rectum has been removed. A 2-4 inch section of the colon is formed into a J-shaped pouch in order to replace the function of the rectum and store stool until it can be eliminated. This procedure is similar to the side-to-end coloanal anastomosis but a larger pouch is formed.

jaundice (JAWN-dis)
A condition in which the skin and the whites of the eyes become yellow, urine darkens, and the color of stool becomes lighter than normal. Jaundice occurs when the liver is not working properly or when a bile duct is blocked.

Javlor (JAV-lor)
A substance being studied in the treatment of bladder cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Also called vinflunine.

Jewett staging system (JOO-et STAY-jing SIS-tem)
A staging system for prostate cancer that uses ABCD. “A” and “B” refer to cancer that is confined to the prostate. “C” refers to cancer that has grown out of the prostate but has not spread to lymph nodes or other places in the body. “D” refers to cancer that has spread to lymph nodes or to other places in the body. Also called the ABCD rating or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system.

jiang huang (jyong hwong)
An East Indian plant that is a member of the ginger family and is used as a spice and food color. The underground stems are used in some cultures to treat certain stomach problems. The substance in jiang huang that gives it a yellow color (curcumin) is being studied in the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer disease, cystic fibrosis, and psoriasis. The scientific name is Curcuma longa. Also called Indian saffron and turmeric.

Jim’s Juice
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in Jim’s Juice have been tested, and none of them has been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. Jim’s Juice is not available in the United States. Also called Protocel, Sheridan’s Formula, Cancell, Crocinic Acid, JS–114, JS–101, 126–F, and Cantron.

JM 216
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called platinum analogs. Also called BMS-182751 and satraplatin.

JMML
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. A rare form of childhood leukemia in which cancer cells often spread into tissues such as the skin, lung, and intestines. Also called juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

johimbe (yo-HIM-bay)
A tree native to West Africa. The bark is used as a supplement for bodybuilding and to enhance male sexual performance. It contains the chemical yohimbine, which is being studied in the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Johimbe may interact with certain drugs used to treat depression, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar. The scientific name is Pausinystalia yohimbe. Also called yohimbe.

joint (joynt)
In medicine, the place where two or more bones are connected. Examples include the shoulder, elbow, knee, and jaw.

JS–101
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in JS–101 have been tested, and none of them has been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. JS–101 is not available in the United States. Also called Protocel, Sheridan’s Formula, Jim’s Juice, Crocinic Acid, Cancell, JS–114, 126–F, and Cantron.

JS–114
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in JS–114 have been tested, and none of them has been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. JS–114 is not available in the United States. Also called Protocel, Sheridan’s Formula, Jim’s Juice, Crocinic Acid, Cancell, JS–101, 126–F, and Cantron.

junctional nevus (JUNK-shun-ul NEE-vus)
A mole found in the junction (border) between the epidermis and dermis layers of the skin. These moles may be pigmented and slightly raised, and have a higher risk of developing into malignant melanoma.

juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JOO-veh-NILE MY-eh-loh-MAH-noh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh)
JMML. A rare form of childhood leukemia in which cancer cells often spread into tissues such as the skin, lung, and intestines. Also called JMML.

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cholangiocarcinoma, or bile-duct (bile duct) cancer, arises from the tissues in the bile duct.